Botulinum Toxin known as Botox is found in soil and untreated water around the world. It produces spores that survive in poorly preserved or poorly canned foods, where they generate different types of toxins. The main ones are 7 (type A, B, C, D, E, F and G), being genetically different, but having similar molecular weights.
The toxins are synthesized as a single polypeptide chain with a molecular mass of approximately 150 kDa; in this form, the toxin has relatively low potency as a neuromuscular agent.
Mode of action of the neurotoxic botulinum
When Botox is applied, it reaches the nerve endings in the myoneural plate (neuromuscular junction), where it attaches to the neuronal membrane, entering the inside of the nerve ending, causing blockage of nerve transmission and thus flaccid paralysis. of the muscles. The final effect is a temporary chemical denervation at the neuromuscular junction without producing any physical injury to the nerve structures.
What is Botox?
Botox is a drug made from a toxin produced by the Clostridium botulinum bacteria. It’s the same toxin that causes a life-threatening type of food poisoning called botulism. Doctors use it in small doses to treat health problems, including:
Temporary removal of facial wrinkles, in aesthetic medicine procedures.
Severe sweating of the armpits and palms of the hands.
Cervical dystonia: a neurological disorder that causes severe muscle contractions in the neck and shoulders.
Blepharospasm: uncontrollable blinking.
Strabismus: deviated eyes.
The toxin, when administered in very small doses, without any risk to the patient, acts in different ways, producing paralysis of the muscles to which it is applied.
Botox applications in aesthetic medicine
Today, the application of botox is in the first place of aesthetic procedures worldwide, far surpassing many other procedures as a whole.
The diluted form of botulinum toxin type A, which is used in aesthetic procedures; It is one of the treatments that offers the best results for the temporary elimination of wrinkles on the face, especially those on the forehead and crow’s feet; It can also be applied to other areas of the face: eyelids, nose, lips, neck, etc.
How long does the effect of Botox last?
It has a temporary duration, between 3 to 5 months, after which the dose must be renewed. There are different laboratories that sell it; but the best known trademark is Botox, produced and registered by Allergan Laboratories, Inc. Approved since 2002, for its application in aesthetic procedures.
The procedure takes a few minutes, and trunk anesthesia is not necessary, just applying local cold in the area to be treated or topical anesthetic cream, minutes before application, is sufficient. If the patient is very intolerant, it may be necessary to anesthetize the areas of the face on the corresponding trunk nerve.
The effect begins within a few days and lasts approximately 3-5 months.
Side effects can be observed
After the immediate administration of botox, slight discomfort may be observed such as pain at the injection site, symptoms similar to those of a cold with some transient general malaise, headache or headache, almost always of mild intensity and sometimes discomfort at the of the stomach; all with spontaneous remission without the need for additional medication.